The rule of Italian fascism. Political formation and fascist practices. Part II

 

Mussolini — for the first time in history — consistently put into action in Italy the whole system of main concepts of radical-right wing elite theory: Pareto and Mosca, Michels and Le Bon, Sorel and Gentile.

 

Editor’s note: Fascists, as the example of the World Anti Communist League taught us, are like chameleons. They change form depending on circumstances. When they need to come to power, they want you to like them. Once they are there, they don’t need your opinion anymore, to an extent of physically destroying all opposition. This way, when fascists brought Mussolini to power in Italy, he cancelled all democracy in the party – and in the country. Because fascism, according to Mussolini, must not have become ill of “electoral fever”. The World Anti Communist League which consisted of most notorious fascist criminals in the world now calls itself “World League for Freedom and Democracy”, but fascism remains in their essence. What always remains constant is the essence of fascism. Remember the lessons Italy learned the hard way when you listen to the far-right parties during the “democratic” debates.


Continue reading

The rule of Italian fascism. Political formation and fascist practices. Part I

 

Mussolini created a structure of economic and social governing in which the government — on behalf of the fascist party — declares itself to be a superclass “power of national solidarity”.

Editor’s note: The migrant crisis creates a new Europe. Right-wing parties already win elections – like in Switzerland. The success of more radical, extreme right wing is a matter of time and pressure caused by the refugees on the European countries, which number keeps growing. However, once Europeans believe in the solutions proposed by right wing and ultra-right parties and let them into the government, there will be no way of getting them out. Their methods never change – violence and political terror. They will never leave the power, once they get it. Unfortunately, there is no strong resistance from the inside Europe that could stop them once they are in power. Moreover, any resistance will be suppress by the ultra-right. In XXI century, the cost that the world would pay for buying into what new right politicians promise Europe, would be dramatically higher than the one world paid in XX century. We need to search for solution! We need a new answer to the most dangerous challenge of the XXI century.

The fascist coup d’etat in Italy concluded with a triumphant march of fascist cohorts along the streets of Rome as they were leaving the city. Mussolini announced the members of the new Cabinet of Ministers not only fascists, but also popolare, democrats and liberals on November 30, 1922. Mussolini left the Interior and Foreign Ministries to himself.


Continue reading

Italian fascism: competition for the role of the leader

 

Mussolini — fully in the spirit of Sorel’s concept — began to create a party of “direct action” — a party of mass violence, supposed to embody the ancient Roman imperial myth.

 

Editor’s note: The fifth article of a series on essence, birth and rise of fascism. D’Annunzio’s Fiume Exploit taught Mussolini many things about what fascism should be like: what the leader must do, how the leader should effectively incorporate mysticism in his image, the role of mystical symbols and rituals that surround the leader, how to spellbind the crowd. D’Annunzio also made mistakes; Mussolini learned from his mistakes and became the Duce not of a single city, but of all of fascist Italy. XXI century Europe might give in to fascism despite all efforts – alas, fascist ideas might be dear to it’s people. Bringing fascists to power, with their solutions to immigration and economic crises, might be tempting to too many people. But this is the expectation of those who constructed these crises by bombing Libya and supporting extremists in Syria, by destroying the economies of some European countries in favor of the economies of others. Everyone who wants to fight fascism must be prepared. You, who want to fight fascism, will not convince anyone that you are right without deep intellectual understanding of fascism. We must learn to be convincing. And we are running out of time: hear the ticking of the clock, fascism gets closer by the second.

 

Let us emphasize one more time that it is Italian fascism which — for the first time in Modern era — gave life to the main concepts of “elite theory” and decisively and openly cancelled the fundamental principles of the French revolution — Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. The success of this attempt cannot be understood without the analysis of reasons and conditions of the rise of fascists to power. The devil, as they say, is in the details.


Continue reading

Mussolini and the political formation of fascism

 

Had Mussolini gone the average Italian Socialist way, he would most certainly become one of the prominent activists of the Italian Socialist party – not more than that. But Mussolini was (a) an unprecedented bastard and (b) an outstanding politician.

 

The creation and political development of Italian fascism is directly tied to the name of Benito Mussolini.

Two “methodological temptations” must be avoided in the discussion of this figure.


Continue reading