Mass protests continue in Kiev

23.10.2015, Kiev.

“Radical party” representatives and their supporters are protesting near the Cabinet of Ministers building in Kiev for three days now. Some of the protesters, the supporters of the “Party of ordinary people”, have marched some 350km to Kiev from Poltava by foot. They protest against yet another rise of tariffs for Ukrainian citizens.

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Italian fascism: path towards seizure of power


Violence against political competitors, as well as mass public campaigns — rallies, marches, holidays of cohorts of blackshirts were at the heart of  the activity of fascists. Elitism and deep contempt towards liberalism, socialism, democracy were present in all aspects of fascist activity.


Editor’s note: Fascism, and Mussolini, saw socialists as their main enemies. Liberals were nothing more than an annoying distraction to them, doomed either way. The year 1922 proved this: the liberals surrendered the country to the fascists without a fight. The only major force opposing fascists were socialists. But socialists were too disorganized. They didn’t manage to convince the masses to follow them. Fascists, in the absence of strong socialists, quickly took over Italy: Mussolini’s fascist party had 150 thousand members in 1923 and almost a million members a year later. Soon fascists were strong enough to use their main problem-solving weapon: violence.


After the decision of the Rapallo conference and the fall of the “free city of Fiume”, Mussolini (quite in the spirit of Machiavelli and Le Bon) once again drastically changes his position. Earlier he supported D’Annunzio by his articles in his party periodical Popolo d’Italia (People of Italy), proclaiming the motto “Fiume or death”; now he writes “Fascism cannot be uncompromising in questions of foreign policy. The treaty regarding Fiume and the eastern border is acceptable.

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Italian fascism: competition for the role of the leader


Mussolini — fully in the spirit of Sorel’s concept — began to create a party of “direct action” — a party of mass violence, supposed to embody the ancient Roman imperial myth.


Editor’s note: The fifth article of a series on essence, birth and rise of fascism. D’Annunzio’s Fiume Exploit taught Mussolini many things about what fascism should be like: what the leader must do, how the leader should effectively incorporate mysticism in his image, the role of mystical symbols and rituals that surround the leader, how to spellbind the crowd. D’Annunzio also made mistakes; Mussolini learned from his mistakes and became the Duce not of a single city, but of all of fascist Italy. XXI century Europe might give in to fascism despite all efforts – alas, fascist ideas might be dear to it’s people. Bringing fascists to power, with their solutions to immigration and economic crises, might be tempting to too many people. But this is the expectation of those who constructed these crises by bombing Libya and supporting extremists in Syria, by destroying the economies of some European countries in favor of the economies of others. Everyone who wants to fight fascism must be prepared. You, who want to fight fascism, will not convince anyone that you are right without deep intellectual understanding of fascism. We must learn to be convincing. And we are running out of time: hear the ticking of the clock, fascism gets closer by the second.


Let us emphasize one more time that it is Italian fascism which — for the first time in Modern era — gave life to the main concepts of “elite theory” and decisively and openly cancelled the fundamental principles of the French revolution — Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. The success of this attempt cannot be understood without the analysis of reasons and conditions of the rise of fascists to power. The devil, as they say, is in the details.

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